Mathematics for Teaching The Pythagorean Theorem Puzzle

## The Pythagorean Theorem Puzzle

Math puzzles are great activities for enjoying and learning mathematics. The following is an example of Tachiawase. Tachiawase is a popular puzzle in Japan which involve dissecting a geometrical figure into several parts and then recombining them to form another geometrical figure. The puzzle below is credited to Hikodate Nakane (1743). This was one of the puzzles distributed at the booth of Japan Society of Mathematical Education during the ICME 12 in Seoul this year.

Make a shape that is made from two different sizes of squares by dividing them into three parts  then recombine them into one square. [Reformulated version: Make two cuts in the shapes below to make shapes that can be recombined into a bigger square.]

Here’s how I figured out the puzzle: I know that it must have something to do with Pythagorean Theorem because it asks to make a bigger square from two smaller ones. But where should I make the cut? I was only able to figure it out after changing the condition of the puzzle to two squares with equal sizes. It reduced the difficulty significantly. This gave me the idea where I could make the cut for the side of the square I will form. The solution to this puzzle also gave me an idea on how to teach the Pythagorean theorem.

I made the following GeoGebra mathlet (a dynamic math applet) based on the solution of the puzzle. I think the two-square math puzzle is a little bit tough to start the lesson so my suggestion is to start the lesson with this mathlet and then give the puzzle later.  As always, the key to any lesson are the questions you ask. For the applet below, here’s my proposed sequence of questions:

1. What are the areas of each of the square in the figure? Show at least two ways of finding the area.
2. How are their areas related? Drag F to find out if your conjecture works for any size of the squares.
3. Can you think of other ways of proving the relationships between the three squares without using the measures of the sides?
4. If the two smaller squares BEDN and GFNH have sides p and q, how will you express the area of the biggest square LEJG in terms of the area of the smaller ones?
5. Express the length of the sides LEJG in terms of the sides of BEDN and GFNH.