Assessing students’ understanding of operations involving integers should not just include assessing their skill in adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing integers. Equally important is their conceptual understanding of the process itself and thus need assessing as well. Even more important is to make the assessment process a context where students are given opportunity to connect…

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IN the beginning there was only diagnostic and summative assessment. Diagnostic assessment was supposed to share power with summative assessment in the classroom but never really attained equality with it not because teachers did not want to give diagnostic assessment but because stakeholders (parents and state) are more interested with statistics and well-defined label of students’ level of…

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Problems about graphs of functions can be grouped into interpretation or construction tasks. The tasks may involve interpreting individual points, an interval, or the entire graph. The same may be said about construction tasks. It may involve point-plotting, a part of the graph, or constructing the whole graph. Tasks involving constructing graphs are considered more difficult than interpreting…

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To develop higher-order thinking skills (HOTS) the mind needs to engage in higher-order learning task (HOLT). A good task for developing higher-order thinking skills is a problem solving task. But not all problems are created equal. Some problems are best suited for evaluating learning while others are best suited for assessing learning that would inform teaching….

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There are at least three representational systems used to study function: graphs, tables and equations. But unlike graphs and tables that are used to visually show the relationships between two varying quantities, students first experience with equation is not as a representation of function but a statement which state the condition on a single unknown quantity. Also,…

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