One of the main objectives of mathematics education is for students to acquire mathematical habits of mind. One of the ways of achieving this objective is to engage students in problem solving tasks. What is a problem solving task? And when is a math problem a problem and not an exercise?
What is a problem solving task?
A problem solving task refers to a task requiring a solution or answer, the strategy for finding such is still unknown to the solver. The solver still has to think of a strategy. For example, if the task,
If , what is equal to?
is given before the lesson on solving equation, then clearly it is a problem to the students. However, if this is given after the lesson on solving equation and students have been exposed to a problem similar in structure, then it cease to be a problem for the students because they have been taught a procedure for solving it. All the students need to do is to practice the algorithm to get the answer.
What is a good math problem?
The ideal math problem for teaching mathematics through problem solving is one that can be solved using the students’ previously learned concepts/skills but can still be solved more efficiently using a new algorithm or new concept that they will be learning later in the lesson. If the example above is given before the lesson about the properties of equality, the students can still solve this by their knowledge of the concept of subtraction and the meaning of the equal sign even if they have not been taught the properties of equality or solving quadratic equation (Most teachers I give this question to will plunge right away to solving for x. They always have a good laugh when they realize as they solve the problem that they don’t even have to do it. They say, “ah, … habit”.)
Given enough time, a Year 7 student can solve this problem with this reasoning: If I take away 7 from and gives me 18 then if I take away a bigger number from it should give me something less than 18. Because 9 is 2 more than 7 then should be 2 less than 18. This is 16.
Why use problem solving as context to teach mathematics?
You may ask why let the students go through all these when we there is a shorter way. Why not teach them first the properties of equality so it would be easier for them to solve this problem? All they need to do is to subtract 2 from both sides of the equal sign and this will yield . True. But teaching mathematics is not only about teaching students how to get an answer or find the shortest way of getting an answer. Teaching mathematics is about building a powerful form of mathematical knowledge. Mathematical knowledge is powerful when it is deeply understood, when concepts are connected with other concepts. In the example above, the problem has given the students the opportunity to use their understanding of the concept of subtraction and equality in a problem that one will later solve without even being conscious of the operation that is involved. Yet, it is precisely equations like these that they need to learn to construct in order to represent problems usually presented in words. These expressions should therefore be meaningful. Translating phrases to sentences will not be enough develop this skill. Every opportunity need to be taken to make algebraic expressions meaningful to students especially in beginning algebra course. More importantly, teaching mathematics is not also only about acquiring mathematical knowledge but more about acquiring the thinking skills and disposition for solving problems and problem posing. This can only happen when they are engage in these kind of activities. For sample lesson, read how to teach the properties of equality through problem solving.
Finally, and I know teachers already know this but I’m going to say it just the same. Not all ‘word problems’ are problems. If a teacher solves a problem in the class and then gives a similar ‘problem’ changing only the situation or the given ‘numbers’ but not the structure of the problem or some of the condition then the latter is no longer a problem but an exercise for practicing a particular solution to a ‘problem’. It may still be a problem of course to those students who did not understand the teacher’s solution. I’m not saying that this is not a good practice, I am just saying that this is not problem solving but an exercise.
You may also want to read How to Solve It: Modern Heuristicsto further develop your problem solving skills.